Best Ways to Understand Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) | Causes | Risks and Treatments
Hello all! I am going to talk to you guys about PCS Ovaries, what are they, what are some of the causes of this syndrome, what are they Some diseases which are strongly linked to PCOS, then Finally, I am going to talk to you guys about some remedies to help Relieving some symptoms of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. Let’s start, what PCOS? Well, as the name suggests, it is polycystic Ovaries. So ovaries with multiple cysts, and you can actually see this at Ultrasound of the patient’s ovaries.
You can actually see these tiny black holes Which looks like a black hole – it’s actually cysts inside the ovary. So what are some of the characteristics of the syndrome, or what are some symptoms The syndrome? Well, one of the main reasons is irregular menstruation, This infringement can occur once a patient has already entered puberty .
So often, these patients suffer from a delay in the start of their menstrual cycle, Or the onset of the first menstrual period is delayed. So their first turn gets delayed A little bit or a little older than average.
They can also suffer from oligomenorrhea, Which is less than nine menstrual cycles per year. So They have fewer menstrual periods, and during puberty, they can develop Sometimes menopause, which isn’t menstrual periods at all – therefore They go through their lives without any periods Absolutely. But interestingly, they could have Regular after 40 and what I mean by that is that they often have them Many of these symptoms, such as oligomenorrhea and / or amenorrhea, can, however It becomes fairly normal after the age of 40.
So after the age of forty They can have more regular cycles and there is a trait Another major component of polycystic ovary syndrome is hyperandrogenism, and this Kind of the largest (kind of big characteristic) that causes Lots of visible symptoms that you see with these patients. Type 1 is acne – acne is very common in patients with PCOS Due to high levels of androgens.
Another type is hirsutism – now Hirsutism is actually just hair growth, so these patients often grow back Or they have more definitive hair growth, so this type of dark hair grows out Especially on their faces or other parts of their body. And the last one is actually hair loss – it’s almost even of the male type Pattern of hair loss due to high levels of androgens. Now what is the incidence This syndrome. Well, the injury is very disconcerting. It is actually nobody The most common endocrine agent, usually in women About 6.5 to 8% of women develop this syndrome.
So what is it Some medical conditions that are closely related to polycystic syndrome Ovaries? Well firstly, that’s roughly 40 to 85% of women with PCOS Are overweight Or obesity, so there is often a link between BMI and PCOS, and this brings us to a list of who Conditions associated with overweight and obesity themselves, such as: Type 2 diabetes. So women with PCOS usually have them An increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes again, and this follows in concordance with Glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. They are also at risk of infection Dyslipidemia – which follows insulin resistance again and because they are more susceptible For those who are overweight or obese, they are more likely to develop obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).
Another condition associated with insulin resistance in obesity is Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and women with polycystic ovary syndrome They have a higher incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which you can see here On the left is a normal liver on the left, but the one on the right is Fatty liver, and you can see that there are a lot of fat droplets inside the liver.
Again, many of these women also suffer from depression And anxiety. And because, as I mentioned before, they suffer from irregular periods They can often become infertile, so if they are menopausal, usually What they have is something known as ovulation infertility, so they actually are They do not ovulate properly and become infertile as a result. Another one is endometrial hyperplasia – now endometrial hyperplasia is just Excessive growth or overgrowth of the uterine lining inside the uterus and this results now It also increases the risk of endometrial cancer due to: Hyperplasia. We now turn to some of the aetiology of ovarian syndrome Polycystic – to initiate unclear etiology, not met Clarify them at the moment; However, although the etiology is unclear, it is known that Some individuals are more likely to develop PCOS.
Usually it is individuals Obese people have a higher risk of developing multiple ovarian syndrome Cysts (correlation, not necessarily causation). As I mentioned before, those who are insulin-resistant are You are more likely to have polycystic ovary syndrome.
Considered mothers Women with type 1 and type 2 gestational diabetes are also more likely to develop polycystic ovary syndrome. Another one is the premature adrenal gland. Now the adrenaline is the beginning or The adrenal glands start to produce Androgens.
Therefore, during childhood, people usually produce some quantities Androgens in very low quantities, but individuals appear Those with premature adrenal sheaths are at higher risk With PCOS. Also, people with first-degree relatives who suffer from PCOS are more likely to have it, This lends credence to possible genetic influences. So it might be a lot of these A cause or possibly the result of polycystic ovary syndrome – still Not known for sure, but again the relatives appear to be first-degree They show that there are some genetic influences regarding PCS Ovaries.
And this kind of pathogen is really sick, and it’s been there Multiple studies show that there are some genetic traits involved Environmental factors appear to influence the onset of polycystic ovary syndrome Or its phenotype. Some studies have shown that Perhaps there are certain genes on chromosome 2 or chromosome 9 – and here is a group Of different genes or proteins that may be involved in the syndrome Polycystic ovary.
Hormones and Receptors of Human Body
One is the LH receptor. Another one is Human chorionic gonadotropin receptors. The other is called FATA. Another one is Androgen receptor, the other is the sex hormone-binding globulin. Another one is Protein 1a which contains the DENN / MADD domain and the other is insulin.
So it is still there Some problems related to insulin or insulin signals that predispose Individuals with PCOS. In fact, as most show Risks associated with polycystic ovary syndrome, Many of them seem to contain insulin like Insulin resistance, obesity, and various types of diabetes.
And one more thing Important is that insulin is actually a stimulant To produce thermal cells for androgens, so thermocytes are the cells that It actually surrounds the developing follicle inside the ovary and actually insulin Stimulates the containing cells to release androgens. Again, this one Another potential mechanism causing polycystic ovary syndrome is hyperandrogenism. Now that we know about some of the symptoms, some risks, and some Diseases associated with PCOS, what are some What treatments can we provide to these patients?
Well, one of the first things we like Focus on some lifestyle changes, because A large number of patients with PCOS are either overweight or obese, as I mentioned before So we like to try to change some of these parameters.
So we like to get them to follow a system Dieting or just exercising to try and try to reduce their BMI Reducing their weight and trying to normalize insulin and insulin tolerance And glucose tolerance. There are also some drug treatments, and this is especially important for fixation Irregular menstruation. So some of these include: Contraceptives made of estrogen and progestin Very effective, and oral contraceptives can cure not only Irregular menstruation but also hyperandrogenism, which is another thing Important is medroxyprogesterone acetate and you can Give this to patients and this is very important to treat and To protect these patients against any endometrial cancer as I mentioned before.
This may not directly treat hyperandrogenism But it treats or protects the endometrium from any enlargement or cancer.
Metformin again is a regulator of insulin signaling and may This has been shown to help a little with the symptoms of polycystic ovary syndrome . Now for patients who do not get the effect that They want it, they don’t see, you know, the changes they want maybe Still suffering from hirsutism or bad acne, you can give these patients Anti-androgens, such as spironolactone and finasteride.
These two can work The two drugs inhibit the androgenic effect and treat some Symptoms of hyperandrogenism such as acne and hirsutism. And another set of Drug therapy consists in the release of the gonadotropin hormone that releases hormone agonists that can It helps stabilize the mental cycle, too. Anyway, that was a brief lesson on PCOS.
Hope you found this helpful and thank you very much for Watch and have a nice day!.